On June 1, 2017, U.S. President Donald Trump announced that the United States would withdraw from the agreement.  According to Article 28, the earliest possible effective withdrawal date for the United States is November 4, 2020, with the agreement having entered into force in the United States on November 4, 2016. If it had chosen to withdraw from the UNFCCC, it could be notified immediately (the UNFCCC entered into force for the United States in 1994) and enter into force a year later. On August 4, 2017, the Trump administration sent an official notice to the United Nations stating that the United States intended to withdraw from the Paris Agreement as soon as it was legally allowed to do so.  The formal resignation could not be submitted until the agreement was in force for the United States for 3 years in 2019.   She added: “The speed with which countries have enabled the entry into force of the Paris Agreement is unprecedented in recent experiences with international agreements and constitutes a strong endorsement of the importance that nations attach to the fight against climate change and the realization of the multitude of possibilities inherent in the Paris Agreement.” Kenya is one of the first countries to sign, ratify and domesticate the Paris Agreement. We have created an institutional policy framework. We have done a lot and we are an African leader in renewable energy, and I think we are doing better than most of these developed countries,” Tobiko said. Addressing the high-level segment of the twenty-second climate change conference (COP 22), President Kenyatta, who was accompanied by the Cabinet Secretary of the Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources, Professor Judi Wakhungu, among others, said his cabinet had already approved the ratification of the Paris Agreement and was now awaiting final ratification by Parliament. The 189 countries involved in signing the agreement had to set climate-specific targets to reduce their carbon footprint, known as Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs).
The country is now one of 81 countries in the world that have ratified the climate agreement, of the 197 parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). With its ratification by the European Union, the agreement received enough contracting parties to enter into force on 4 November 2016. Patricia Espinosa, Executive Secretary of the UNFCCC, also congratulated the countries that have ratified the agreement. Tobiko stressed that Kenya is among the first African countries to ratify the Paris Climate Agreement, adding that the country has taken various institutional and policy measures to mitigate the effects of climate change. “You can see the devastation of floods when it rains, and the drought when it doesn`t rain. We are still in a state of emergency. Kenya is one of the most vulnerable and least carbon-emitting countries. Recalling the links between the Agreement and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), which include the eradication of extreme poverty, the fight against inequalities and injustice, and the taking of urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts, the President noted that the Agreement is the beginning of ambitious and in-depth global action and support, renewed and strengthened, which will address the challenge of climate change in the short and long term. and stressed the need to synchronize the implementation processes of the Paris Agreement and the SDGs. On 4 November 2019, the United States notified the depositary of its withdrawal from the Agreement, which is to take effect exactly one year after that date.  The Paris Agreement is an agreement under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) that addresses the mitigation, adaptation and financing of greenhouse gas emissions from 2020 onwards. The agreement aims to address the threat of global climate change by keeping a global temperature increase this century well below 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels and making efforts to further limit the temperature increase to 1.5 degrees Celsius.
 “Kenya and Africa are the most affected by climate change. For us, it`s about adaptation and ensuring that our people, communities and the economy have the resilience to recover when that happens,” said CS Tobiko. Both the EU and its Member States are individually responsible for ratifying the Paris Agreement. A strong preference has been expressed for the EU and its 28 Member States to deposit their instruments of ratification at the same time to ensure that neither the EU nor its Member States commit to commitments that strictly belong to each other, and there are concerns that there will be disagreement on each Member State`s share of the EU-wide reduction target – as well as the UK`s vote. in favor of leaving the EU could undermine the Paris Delay the Pact.  However, the European Parliament approved the ratification of the Paris Agreement on 4 October 2016 and the EU deposited its instruments of ratification on 5 October 2016 with several EU Member States.  “Kenya will now benefit from the $100 billion pledged by developed countries to developing countries, and even more money will be mobilized by investors, banks and the private sector, which can build on the $7 trillion needed to support a global transformation of climate change,” Mwenda said. Seven other countries have signed the Paris Agreement but have not ratified it. “Adaptation strengthens the ability to cope with devastation. For that, we need resources. The adjustment must be maintained financially.
The country struggled to protect itself. Developed countries are the biggest emitters and do not support in terms of financing and technology,” he said. “Among the nine are the restoration of degraded forests and land, the development of an additional 2,275 megawatts of geothermal energy, the restoration of degraded forests, encouraging Kenyans to use improved stoves and liquefied natural gas (LPG) and agroforestry,” she said. The CCDA Conference is an annual event of the Climate for Development in Africa (ClimDev-Africa) programme and a joint initiative of the African Union Commission (AUC), the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (ECA) and the African Development Bank (AfDB). The President informed the conference that Kenya now has a Climate Change Act and a National Adaptation Plan (NAP), developed through multi-stakeholder engagement, which contribute to the national implementation of the Paris Agreement. CS, Prof. Judi Wakhungu with CS, Amina Mohammed from Foreign Affairs, Ireland former President, Mary Robinson and CS, Water, Hon. Eugene Wamalwa at COP 22 in Marrakech, Morocco. (pix. courtesy) “To achieve this, the government must implement a work programme to restore forests to 960,000 hectares by 2030, including the restoration of dry forests, the development, testing and application of energy compensation and balancing mechanisms, and the development of an additional 2,275 MW of geothermal capacity by 2030 through a support programme to encourage private sector investment,” Wakhungu said…